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Function – definition
Function is the term used to express the purpose of a text or of a speech act.
This function can be determined by the writer or by the reader.
Texts or spoken pieces might fall into one of the following broad categories:
WRITING persuasion an advertisement information a train timetable entertainment a short story instruction how to build a wardrobe
SPEECH persuasion a sermon information a radio weather forcast entertainment a joke instruction how to get from A to B
The term ‘function’ is used as a technical term in linguistics and in literary criticism.
An awareness of function helps to produce efficient writing and speaking.
An awareness of function also results in efficient reading and listening.
The four general functions possess certain stylistic features or attributes:
Instruction the imperative mode and direct address
[Stir the mixture]
Persuasion emotive vocabulary
[beautiful, duty, militant, heart]
Information factual data
[time, locations, measurements]
Entertainment often breaks rules of grammar, spelling, pronunciation
Awareness of these in the production of speech or writing leads to effective communication and an appropriate style.
For instance, if we buy a product such as a chicken casserole from a supermarket we may be more interested in what’s in it than how to cook it. We may be interested in both these elements, but we certainly wouldn’t want them mixed together.
Food manufacturers for this reason present the list of ingredients [information] separately from how to prepare the dish [instructions]. This simple example shows the concept of function working efficiently.
If we receive a phone call from a close relative who comes to visit more often than we would like, we immediately try to ascertain the purpose [function] of the call. Is it –
- an attempt to fix up the next visit? [persuade]
- to tell us the possible dates? [inform]
- to explain how their vegetables should be cooked? [instruct]
- to tell us that the cat has learned to swim? [entertain]
In this example, the person who phones to arrange the visit may have every interest in obscuring the function of the call. As a recipient however, we are very interested in finding out what it is. Such is the crucial nature of function.
The National Curriculum for the teaching of English in Schools now states the importance of making children aware of the function of all the varied pieces they read and write.
Examining boards for A level English will only accept written work which has an authentic function. That is, it should be as close as possible to an example which could be used in real life.
© Roy Johnson 2003